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这座中国宝塔承包了美剧快餐盒,如今又在英国刷屏了……

GRE 2017-11-24 03:04:44


去年9月份,位于南京市大报恩寺内的琉璃塔在歪果仁的世界里狠狠地火了一把。


美国有线电视新闻网CNN用大篇幅报道了这座中国琉璃塔,称之为“世界奇迹”,此塔美图还霸占CNN网站首页,吸粉无数啊。

 


之后又曝出该塔被印在所有美剧里出现的中餐外卖盒上。

 


竟然还有,皮克斯的动画片!这个细节可能让很多中国人感到意外。在长城、天安门之外,西方人还把这座塔看成中国的标志性建筑。



一时间,不禁让我国人民感叹,中国宝塔真是火出了新境界!


不过这都不是最让人惊叹的。最近有一座中式宝塔动工修缮的消息刷爆了各大英媒网站,而且厉害的是,它竟然是南京大报恩寺琉璃塔的完美“复刻版”!


这座中式宝塔目前就坐落在伦敦市郊英国皇家园林邱园内,被称作“邱园大宝塔”(Kew Gardens Great Pagoda)。



英国人对这座中式大宝塔的热爱执着又深切,每天都有许多游客前往英国皇家植物园,就为了欣赏一下这座中国风格的宝塔,感受东方园林的味道。



不仅如此,英国人还把他们钟爱的大宝塔刻在了硬币上。2009年,大约有21万枚印有邱园大宝塔的50便士硬币面向市场发行。现在大约有9亿多枚50便士硬币在市场上流通,所以这个印有邱园大宝塔的硬币就非常难寻,弥足珍贵。

 


据说,它的价值已经被炒到30-100磅。



那么问题来了,为什么在英国会有一座东方宝塔呢?


原来,伦敦邱园宝塔与南京大报恩寺琉璃塔有着很深的历史渊源,这个故事还得从17世纪讲起。


初识琉璃塔


在明永乐年间(1368-1644),南京大报恩寺琉璃塔是由明成祖朱棣为纪念母亲马皇后而建造。聚集全国最优秀的建筑师,历时19年,这座高达78.2米的琉璃塔终于建成,并在后来被誉为“中世纪世界七大奇迹之一”。

The construction of the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing was ordered by Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), to show his gratitude to his mother. It took the best architects of the country 19 years to complete the 78.2-meter-tall tower, which later was dubbed one of the “Seven Medieval Wonders of the World”. 

中世纪世界七大奇迹

意大利的罗马大斗兽场

利比亚沙漠边缘的亚历山大地下陵墓

中国的万里长城

英格兰巨石阵

中国南京的大报恩寺琉璃宝塔

意大利的比萨斜塔

土耳其的索菲亚大教堂


16世纪末至17世纪早期,南京是世界上最为辉煌壮丽的都市之一。当时几乎每一位来南京的外国人都对大报恩寺不吝溢美之词。



1655年,来到南京的葡萄牙籍耶稣会士曾德昭在其所著《大中国志》中赞美中国是一个“充满智慧的国家”,他特别隆重介绍大报恩寺琉璃塔,称之为“足以和古罗马建筑媲美的豪华建筑!”

In 1655, the Portuguese Jesuit Álvaro de Semedo published his History of that Great and Renowned Chinese Monarchy, in which he praised China as "the country of wisdom" and referred Nanjing Porcelain Tower as “a grand structure enough to compete with ancient Roman architecture”.


1687年,法国传教士李明形容大报恩寺琉璃塔是“整个东方最上等的结构,最高贵的建筑”。

 "The best contrived and noblest structure of all the East," the French mathematician, Le Comte, said when he saw it in 1687.


西方绘制的琉璃塔版画


随着越来越多的外国使者在书中大放异彩描绘琉璃塔,大报恩寺琉璃塔在欧洲渐渐拥有一定的知名度。而真正让大报恩寺琉璃塔在欧洲广为人知的,要得益于当时的荷兰东印度公司(The East-India Company)。


1654年,荷兰东印度公司派使团访问中国,并要求随团的素描画家把沿途风景描绘下来。当时担任此职的是荷兰探险家、画家约翰·尼霍夫。他1656年抵达南京,对大报恩寺留下深刻印象。

 

约翰·尼霍夫


尼霍夫将他在南京的所见所闻所感写到了《中国出使记》一书中,该书一经出版,就在欧洲掀起一阵热潮,并且被翻译成多种语言,一版再版。

When Johan Nieuhof saw the tower and wrote about in his illustrative and informative China memoirs, at once it captured the imagination of the Europeans. The book became popular in Europe and was translated into many languages.


尼霍夫的游记中还配上了精致的雕版画,这幅画就是后来在欧洲流传几百年的“中国塔”形象的出处。自此以后,南京大报恩寺琉璃塔就成了西方人眼中的“网红”建筑。这座“南京瓷塔”就是当时的“中国符号”,在欧洲人看来,它是神秘古老中国的象征。

After that, it quickly became an icon for the city and missionaries from the West reported on its beauty when they returned to their homelands. And it was considered a landmark of China by many countries at the time.


尼霍夫在书中传播了一个神话,即宝塔是用陶瓷建成的。在当时,包括尼霍夫在内的大部分欧洲人还分不清楚琉璃和瓷的区别,所以一直到很多年后,欧洲人都将大报恩塔称为“中国瓷塔”。


约翰·尼霍夫的书影响了一大批欧洲的建筑设计家,其中就包括邱园宝塔设计者、英国皇家御用设计师威廉·钱伯。

Based on the sketches of the book, many artists and architects then created their own works, including Sir William Chambers, who designed the Great Pagoda in Kew Gardens.


建造大宝塔

18世纪初,当英国威尔士亲王弗雷德里克与新婚妻子奥古斯丁搬入邱园白宫内时,这对新婚夫妇绝不会想到,他们为后世留下的遗产到如今仍熠熠生辉。

 

弗雷德里克、奥古斯丁一家


在建筑师威廉·钱伯的帮助下,他们扩建了邱园庄园,并且设计了一系列时尚的建筑和舒适的步行区,打算建造一座空前绝后的皇家植物园,也就是后来的邱园。

They expanded the Kew estate and developed plans for a series of fashionable follies, pleasure walks and a botanical garden to surpass all other, with the help of their architect Sir William Chambers.



作为中国建筑的狂热爱好者,威廉·钱伯曾分别在1743年和1748年两次造访中国。据说当时欧洲大陆各国兴起了一阵“中国热(皇室贵族热衷身着中国丝绸,喝中国茶叶,使用中国瓷器,甚至谈论孔子,学说中文)。钱伯充分参考了尼霍夫的“南京瓷塔”版图,为皇家设计了一座中式大宝塔。

Sir William Chambers was great fan of Chinese architecture, who visited China twice in 1743 and 1748 respectively. He designed the Great Pagoda for the royal family at the height of Europe’s craze for Chinoiserie and was believed to be influenced by prints he had seen there of the famous Porcelain Pagoda at Nanjing. 


威廉·钱伯


1751年,威尔士亲王弗雷德里克意外去世,奥古斯汀在标得伯爵和建筑师威廉·钱伯的帮助下,继续他们之前的计划。于是,超过25座极具观赏性的建筑落成在这片新生的园林中,而邱园宝塔就是主要的建筑之一。

After Frederick’s unexpected death in 1751, Augusta continued his plans with the help of Lord Bute and William Chambers. Over 25 ornamental buildings were constructed in the newly landscaped grounds, with the Pagoda chief among them.


邱园中最初所设计制造的建筑绘本


宝塔地处邱园最南部正中心位置,旁侧建造了另外两座异域建筑——阿尔罕布拉宫和土耳其清真寺,如今这两座建筑已被日式园林所取代。而当时,这三座建筑一起被公认为伦敦最著名的景点之一。

The Pagoda formed the focus of the south end of the Gardens, flanked by two other exotic buildings, an Alhambra and a Turkish Mosque which sat where the Japanese Gateway is today. The trio together were recognized as one of the most famous landscapes of the day.

 

邱园地图,其中彩色区域为宝塔所在的最南端


刚建成时的邱园宝塔与琉璃塔一样五光十色,塔檐外壁镶嵌白绿相间的“镀铬金属板”,大红色的塔顶上镶嵌金色浮雕圆环,每层塔脊上都盘旋着木质镀金的雕龙,共80条。这座高达50米的大宝塔成为了最早且最适合鸟瞰伦敦景观的地方。

Chamber’s original design for the Pagoda was brightly coloured. The roofs had ‘varnished iron plates’in ridged stripes of white and green with glided winged dragons adorning each corner. There were 80 dragons in total, which were carved from wood but covered in real gold. The top finial was bright red surrounded by suspended gold rings. The 50m tall tower offered one of the earliest and finest bird’s eye views of London.


大报恩寺琉璃塔与邱园宝塔对比图


在中国,“阴阳五行”中双数为阴,单数为阳,为了奉佛,吸取学说之精华,在佛塔建设方面就采用单数(an odd number of storeys)。


所以中国宝塔为奇数层是根据佛教的规定,而邱园宝塔共10层,与中国塔是奇数层这一原则相违背,其原因至今不明。不过这也恰恰体现了中国和英国在文化上的差异。


1762年邱园塔建成时,邱园宝塔不仅是欧洲最早的仿中式宝塔,也是英国最高建筑。

Completed in 1762, the Pagoda was not only the earliest imitation of Chinese traditional tower in Europe, but also the tallest construction of a Chinese building in Britain.


大宝塔的没落

塔身的镀金雕龙本来是为了让宝塔更加光彩夺目,很可惜,在1784年它最具标志性的80条雕龙全都消失无踪迹。

Its seemingly golden dragons were designed to dazzle, but they disappeared in 1784 without any trace. They were never seen again.


邱园大宝塔,拍摄于2017年


关于这点有人说,它们是在1784年宝塔修缮的过程中被全部移除,还有一些小道消息称,当时摄政王(Prince Regent)因为赌钱欠债,就将这些镀金雕龙拿去还赌债。


我报记者就此采访了一位皇家历史宫殿的管理员Matthew Storey。谈及这些消失的雕龙,他说道:


“It was probably because the nature took its course… the dragons were made out of wood and they’d been outside for 22 years. They may have decayed a lot.”

“可能因为大自然的原因,这些木质的雕龙在外风吹雨淋22年,历史变故,年久失修,大抵是风化掉了。”



大宝塔的兴修


2015年,皇家历史宫殿广泛撒网,招聘设计贤才,为了重现当年的邱园大宝塔(Bring this amazing building to life)。

 

皇家历史宫殿官网张贴告示举行比赛招聘设计师


好消息是,就在今年,邱园宝塔终于开始全面修缮了!


位于伦敦皇家植物园—邱园中的大宝塔正在修复过程中,修缮后的邱园宝塔将于2018年重新对公众开放。到时候,这个与中国历史有着千丝万缕联系的邱园宝塔,将恢复到它18世纪的荣光,更加光彩照人。

The Great Pagoda at Kew Gardens in London will return to its 18th Century splendour and reopen to the public in 2018 after a major restoration based on its historic ties with China.


修缮外表变化图


英国历史皇家宫殿组织与英国皇家植物园邱园合作,共同承担此次邱园宝塔的维护和修复工程。本次项目由中国江苏省南京市三胞集团旗下英国老牌百货House of Fraser出资赞助,在今年正式启动邱园宝塔修缮工程。

The Historic Royal Palaces organization, which is responsible for the care and restoration of thepagoda, in partnership with the Royal Botanic GardensKew, has started a major conservation project this year, sponsored by the department store House of Fraser, part of the Sanpower Group of Companies based in Nanjing, Jiangsu province.



这一重大的保护项目将恢复白绿塔檐,镀金塔尖,以及塔身的80条木龙,还原十八世纪邱园宝塔的辉煌。

This will see the pagoda return to its original appearance, complete with green and white roofs, a gilded finial and 80 wooden dragons.



设计师计划在第一层的塔脊上按照17世纪原本的样子,修葺8条由非洲红柏树雕刻而成的木龙,长约2.3。剩下的72只木龙从第二层修至第十层,材料改为SLS,长度从两米缩小为90厘米。

Eight dragons at the lower section, around 2.3 metres long, were carved from African red cedar and painted in original manner from the 1700s. The remaining 72 dragons rising up to the 10th floor, created from SLS material, descends from two metres to 90 centi-metres.


木龙位置设计图


两座宝塔


南京大报恩寺琉璃塔和邱园宝塔,这两座皇家宝塔,在历史长河有着近乎相同的命运。璀璨绝伦的琉璃塔毁于19世纪中叶大平天国战火之中,在大洋彼岸的另一端,邱园宝塔历经250多年岁月的洗礼也已不复往日神采。但是值得庆幸的是,他们都要渐渐回到我们身边。


2015年南京大报恩寺遗址公园正式向民众开放,一座钢加玻璃结构的新塔于去年建成,重新矗立在地宫塔基之上。只是为了保护塔基和地宫,建筑师们没有选择复建一座琉璃塔,而是最终修建了一座现代风格的玻璃塔,代替老塔“砖加琉璃”的结构。


邱园宝塔如今也已步入修缮日程,2018年将再现辉煌。


皇家历史宫殿会长Rupert Gavin表示:


"For more than two centuries, the Pagoda has stood as a symbol of enlightened interest and fascination between different cultures - and between Chinese and British culture in particular." 

“两个多世纪以来,邱园宝塔已经成为不同文化之间开明的兴趣和魅力的象征,特别是中英文化。”



而这两座宝塔,也会通过他们的存在,继续续写中英两国的传奇情缘。


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